Kohat is a medium sized town in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. It is located at 33°35'13N 71°26'29E with an elevation of 489 meters (1,607 ft) and is the capital of Kohat District. The town centers on a British-era fort, various bazaars, and a military cantonment. There are a number of tombs of famous personalities in the area, like the Sufi saint and teacher Haji Bahadar Ali Abdullah Shah alias Haji Bahadar Sahib and Mian Fateh Shah (Sherkot, Kohat). The town boasts many mosques and schools. A British built narrow gauge railway runs through the town. To the north of the city lies Kohat Pass.
The History of Kohat in Urdu language was first written by Ahmad Paracha, then a local journalist, Zulfiqar Shah, followed with book titled as "Kohat Tareekh kay Aeenay main" with 200 pictures.
The early history of the district is limited to the vaguest traditions. It is said that in the Buddhist times, two Rajas named Adh and Kohat settled along with the northern border of the district. Raja Kohat gave his name to the town of Kohat, and Raja Adh to the ruins of an old fort on the hill side north of the Muhammadzai, a village four miles to the west of Kohat.
The only other remnants of the Buddhist days is a road cut off the mountain side, on the western skirts of the Jawaki hills near Kotal Post which leads by an even gradient towards the crest.
Kohat Bangash attacked by Babur
He then narrates that in the year AD 1505, when at Peshawar he was induced by Baki Cheghaniani to visit Kohat on the false hope of obtaining rich booty Babar had never heard even the name of Kohat He reached the town through the Kohat pass in two marches and fell on it in luncheon time. After plundering it he sent foraging parties as far as Indus. Bullocks buffaloes and grain wee the only plunder. He released his Afghan prisoners. After two days he marched up the valley towards "Bangash". when he reached a narrow part of the valley, the hillmen of Kohat and that quarter crowded the hills on both flanks, raised the war shout and made a loud clamour. At last they foolishly occupied a detached hill. Now was Babar's opportunity. He sent a force to cut them off from the hills. About a hundred and fifty were killed . Many prisoners were taken. These put grass in their mouths in token of submission, being as much as to say "I am your ox", a custom which Babar first noticed here. Notwithstanding he had them beheaded at once. A minaret of their heads was erected at the next camping place. The next day he reached Hangu. Here again he met with resistance. The Afghans held a fortified Sangar, which was stormed by Babur's troops, who cut off the heads of one or two hundred of them for another minaret
Kohat has mix population of Pashto and Hindko speakers. It is the land of Gayoor and Hhairatman Pathans. Partial parda system is in Kohat.
Sikh and British rule
In the beginning of 19th century Kohat came under the control of Sikhs, Ranjit Singh first marched to Peshawar was 1819. In 1832 Azim Khan was defeated by Ranjit Singh with great slaughter near Naushera, after which Peshawar Sirdars became tributary to the Sikh Government, who sent an army each year to collect the revenue. In 1834 on the flight of the Sirdars, Hari Singh, the Sikh General, Autar gained possession of Peshawar and a Sikh Governor, Autar Singh Sindhanwalia, was now sent to Kohat. Ultimately withdrew leaving to the administrative control of Khan of Teri in 1836.
Kohat was finally annexed to the British dominion on 28 March 1849 with the rest of Punjab and an Assistant Commissioner was posted here to run the administration and to look after the British interests. In the initial stages of the British administration, the locals of the area posed considerable problems, although some of the tribe later joined with the British Government and helped them in running the area. Nevertheless, the Britishers were never at peace in this part of their Kingdom as resistance and opposition always cropped from one quarter or the other. But their tactics of "Divide and Rule" ultimately strengthened their hold over the region. They put one tribe against the other by giving preference to one against the other and finally succeeded in administration them. An example of unrest against the British empire are the actions of Afridi Ajab Khan, who forced the entire British administration of the district to surrender to his demands
Ethnicity and tribes
Pushtoon tribes include Bangash, Afridi, PirKheil, Khans, Khattaks, Kayani, etc. Others include Mian Kheil, Paracha, etc Pushto language is mostly spoken in village areas while Hindko is spoken in kohat city, bazzar and adjacent areas.
The population of Kohat district is Muslim, the Sunni predominate and there is also large Shias population settled in the district and they stretch from Chikarkot Bala, Sherkot to Kachai (i.e. southern border of Kohat). Usterzai Payan is the largest village of Shias. Chali Bagh, Jauzara, and Kachai(Katsi) are famous for their natural springs. People come here in summer day from far of places. There are some Christians families, which settled during the British colonial rule, most of whom are employees of Municipal Committee, Cantonment Board and defense services also reside in Kohat city and Cantonment area. Some scattered families of Hindus also reside in Kohat, Kachai and Marai while a good numbers of Balmiks are employed in various local bodies.
Location of Kohat District (highlighted in red) within the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan.
In Buddhist times, two Rajas namely Adh and Kohat settled along the northern border of the district. Raja Kohat gave his name to the town of Kohat and Raja Adh to the fort, the ruins of which are found on the hill side north of Muhammadzai, a village 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) to the west of Kohat. Another version about this name is that it is a combination of two words, "Koh and Hat" meaning mountain market i.e. a bazar situated in the mountain, although that is disputed as Koh, meaning 'hill' is Persian and Hat (pronounced as 'Hut' is a Sanskrit word. Words from these two languages are rarely combined to form one word.
The total area of the district is 2,545 square kilometres (983 sq mi).
Physical features and topography
The topography of the district is dominated by the mountains and hills. In the northwest of the district the important ranges include lower Miranzai and Bangash, which run in an eastwest direction. Further in the south is Kamar -Tanda. The height of these ranges varies from 650 to 1,000 metres (2,130–3,300 ft) above the sea level. In the northeast the Sowaki and Adan Khel hills run in a southwest -northeast direction. These hills gradually rise in the extreme northeastern part of the district. The intervening open valleys between the hills are seldom more than eight kilometres (5 mi) in width. The Kohat valley is most important agriculturally rich area. Generally, the district is elevated and the ranges attain only inconsiderable heights above the plain area. The headquarter town of Kohat is more than 550 metres (1,800 ft) above the sea level.
Rivers and streams
The river Indus forms the eastern boundary of the district, which separates it from the province of Punjab. Kohat Toi is a principal stream, which enters from Hangu district and flowing to east and southeast, drains into river Indus. The river has a small perennial flow, which disappears before it reaches the town of Kohat, it reappears again at some distance down stream and then flows continuously to the Indus. The Kohat Toi has several small torrents or tributaries, which join it at different places. Another, stream Teri Toi, which flows from west to east, in the southern half of the district, joins the river Indus. The river has little or no perennial flow.
The common trees are ber, Blueberry, sanatha, phulal, olea etc. All kinds of roses, bougainvillea, kashmalo, gul-e-nargis, gui-e-dawoodi Chameli and other seasonal flowers are planted and sown in the district
Typical wildlife found in the district are hare, jackal, wolf, fox, wild cat, chakor, black partridge, grey partridge, urial, chinkara, blue bull, hogdeer, water fowl.
Places of interest
RAZA Mansion Usterzai Payan, Kotal and Kohat Pass, Masjid Haji Bahadur, The Bridge of Khushal Garh, The remnants of the Durranis at Shahpur, Kohat Fort, KUST, Kohat Board, Kohat Tunnel, Kohat Cantonment, Kotal Town (KDA), Usterzai Payan, Sherkot,Chiker-kot-Bala and Tanda Dam mamazuna(nianian colony
Renowned educational organizations
Kohat University of Science & Technology, Preston University Kohat. KIMS (KUST INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES)> Cadet College Kohat, Garrison Cadet College Kohat, Frontier Education Foundation Academy, Postgraduate College for Boys, Postgraduate College for Women, Iqra Public School, Army Public School & College, Fazaia College and Peace Associates bayna tor speen, jungle khel, tanda dam, AL-ASAR ACADEMY USTERZAI PAYAN, toorchapri banda shahpur, Meri Colony,Bannu Road kohat
KUST MEDICAL JOURNAL ( A peer reviewed scientefic medical journal published from KUST INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES,Kohat) Weekly Hamdam, Weekly Sharar, Weekly Uqab, Weekly Dastak, Weekly Tehqeeq,Nayab (literary magazine), Monthly Kohat on Line, Monthly Shehr-e-Sukhan (literary magazine), Daily Taseer, Weekly Kohatnews, Monthly HAQAIQ Kohat
- Radio Pakistan Kohat
- Radio KUST
- TeleChannel Cable network (Providing Cable Tv services in Kohat City and Cantt.)
Radio-KUST FM 98.2 MHz was launched on 14th of August, 2009. It is primarily an educational broadcasting radio with a fairly wide coverage. It is reportedly heard in nearly three Agencies of FATA, Kurum, Aurakzai and Khyber, besides Kohat and its surrounding cities like Karrak, Hangu and Darra Adam Khel. The radio exhibited the technological expertise of the Kohat University of Science and Technology by broadcasting live conversations from callers, not only on land phone line but also from the Internet facility called Skype. Skype users from all over the world connected to the radio transmission for nearly 48 hours as part of Independence Day Celebrations. It thus became the first radio in Pakistan that introduced broadcasting to the local community, through global connection to the Internet free voice calling facility over Skype. The university intends to use this facility for receiving lectures in some hard core areas of natural and social sciences and broadcasting it to the surrounding area to raise educational standards and increase awareness. The radio is primarily a laboratory for the students of the Department of Journalism and Mass Communication Blog where they can learn practical skills of electronic journalism. Radio KUST will be shortly streamed live to the Internet after securing permission from PEMRA. It would be then possible to listen to the broadcasts from anywhere in the world on the Internet.
- Judiciary: Muhammad Rustum Kiani, Qazi Hamid-ud-Din,Syed Ibn-e-Ali, Ghayoor Ali Shah of Jarma
- Poetry: Qasim Ali Afridi, Ahmad Faraz, Dr. Iqbal Fana, Saadullah Khan Hairan, Badshah Khan(Lachi), Ayyub Sabir, Aslam Faizi, Shujaat Ali Rahi, Anjum yousofzai, Sooraj Narain, Shahid Zaman, Syed Muhammed Akber (chikerkotBala), Arshad Naeem Qurashi, Arif Bokhari,S.Aqeeq Hussain,Haroon Adeel, Munir Qasim
- Prose: Abdus-Samad Khan, Ahmad Paracha
- Short Story & Novel: Shoaib Qureshi, Qayyum Marwat, Shujaat Ali Rahi,Arsshad naeem Qureshi,Masoom Shah saqib
- Education: Dr Zulfiqar Gillani,Imtiaz Hussain Gillani, Pareeeshan Khattak, Azmat Ali Shah Banuri ,Dr Sher Ali Shinwari, Zabta Khan Shinwari,(Late)Syed Alam Shah,Syed Munawar Ali Shah Banuri.
- Painting: Liaqat Ali Khan, Jacob Joseph
- Journalism: Ghulam Haider Akhtar, Khair Muhammad Jalali; Khan Gul,Abdul Samad, Qazi Fitrat,Zulfiqar Shah,Fazal Mehmood Ain,(Late)Syed Askar Ali Shah.
- Oratory: Professor Muhammad Iqbal, Syed Siraj hussain (alizai), Hafiz Qari abdul Jaleel
- Religion: Haji Bahadur, Mian Fateh Shah (Sherkot), Syed Akber Shah (chikerkotBala), Pir Mir Alam Shah,(Late)Col: Sultan Ali Shah, Syed Asgher Shah Al-Hussaini,Syed Muhammed Akber (chikerkotBala)
- Doctors: Maj Gen Dr Ashoor Khan, Maj Gen Shoaib, Dr. Alludin Khan Durrani ( Dermatologist- Germany),Dr Kiramat Ali Shah,Dr Rahim Gul(Late-Surgeon), Ghulam Ali Shah aka. Dr.Shah of Chikarkot.Dr. Kifayat ullah Mufti(late)
- Football: Kala Shah Kakoo; Sheedo, Sharifullah Gullu
- Politics:Nawabzada Azmat Ali Khan, Nawabzada Mohabbat Ali Zaffar, Haji Nadir Shah afridi,Dr.Iqbal Fana, Saifullah Khan Khattak advocate, Iftikhar Gilani, Masood Kausar, Pir Dilawar Shah,
Malik Muhammad Asad Khan, Malik Muhammad Ahmad Khan, Malik Amjad Afridi, Qalb-e-Hassan. District Nazim: Saith Gohar Saifullah Bangash,
- Governors: Lt Gen (R) Iftikhar Husain Shah, Lt Gen (R) Shafeeq
- Civil Service: Khalid Mansoor(Late), Tariq Mansoor Jalali(Late, Malik Muhammad Saad Khan (Shaheed), Syed Mateeullah Shah Banuri (Late), Syed Asmat Ali Shah Banuri (R), Kamal Shah, Israr Khan Shinwari, Ahmad Nawaz Shinwari,Masood Ahmed Paracha
- Politics: Syed Iftikhar Gillani, Javed Ahmad Paracha, Syed Masood Kausar, Syed Sana ullah Shah Banuri, Nadir Khan Afridi,Syed Ibn-e-Ali
- Landlords:Ghulam Haider Khan Kayani, Sheikh Raza Muhammad Ali Khan Bangash
- Police Service: Malik Naveed IG, Masood Paracha IG,Malik Saad DIG(Late),Muhammad Aslam Bangash IG, Qazi Inaam Khan(SP), Syed Askar Ali Shah(IB), DSP Lal Fareed kKhan Khattak,
Armed Forces: Late CMDR: Shujaat Ali Shah,Late Maj.Gen. Shaukat Ali Shah, Late Maj.Gen. Sadaqat Ali Shah,Late.Late Lt.Col Syed Chiragh Shah,Late Major Adnan Shah, Late Major Muhammad Akram Khan,Lt.Col Syed Lal Badshah Shah,Col: Hamid Ali Shah. Maj Fahad Siraj,Capt Saddam Siraj
Broadcasters:Mohammad Siddiq Paracha, Zahir Shah Afridi.
List of airports in Pakistan, Kohat Airbase
Much of the transport is privately operated within the city limits. There are also many buses that pass through the city via the Indus Highway. Most going to Peshawar and running between Bannu, D.I. Khan, Islamabad and rest of Pakistan. The railway line is operated between Kohat and Rawalpindi only.
There is a total of 372 kilometres (231 mi) of metalled roads in the district. Indus Highway passes through the district. Some of the main roads include (i) Kohat Khushal Garh road (ii) Kohat Hangu road (iii) Kohat Dhoda Guddi road (iv) Jata Shakardara road (v) Kohat Tunnel Road (All Traffic From Pukhtonkhwa to Sind goes through this road.
Due to demand from the people for a tunnel at the Kotal hills, the Government has recently sanctioned a huge amount for this project, benefiting all the southern districts. Tunnel was completed in 2004. The following are some salient features of the project.
- Total project cost: 6626.75 millions
- Total length of approached road: 29.8 kilometres (18.5 mi)
- Length of north section: 7.7 kilometres (4.8 mi)
- Length of south section: 22.20 kilometres (13.79 mi)
- Length of tunnel: 1.89 kilometres (1.17 mi)
- Width of tunnel: 10.3 metres (34 ft)
- Black topped: 7.3 metres (24 ft)
- Shoulders: 3.0 metres (9.8 ft)
- Time of completion: 48 months
The city is facilitated with two dams; Tanda Dam and Gandiali Dam. The former is located in the SW of the city and the later is located in the SE. Moreover , the city is giving a good friendship symbol between Japan and Pakistan by having a 1.8 km (1.1 mi) long tunnel constructed by Taisei Corporation of Japan. "Kohat Start.(Kohat Tunnel construction, Pakistan)(Brief Article)(Statistical Data Included)". http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-58530264.html. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
- Location of Kohat - Falling Rain Genomics
- four miles (6 km)
- Gazetteer of the Kohat District 1883-84 page 26
- Gazetteer of the Kohat District 1883-84 page 29
- Withania coagulans<[Gilani et al 2009>]